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托福听力冲洗要注重效率

昆居客 / 学习方法 /

并不是所有人都会拿出很多时间来复习托福听力的,甚至很多人因为懒或者别的原因把托福听力练习的时间一缩再缩,那么这么短的时间如何进行托福听力备考呢?下面小编就和大家分享托福口语练习方法详解,希望能够帮助到大家,来欣赏一下吧。

托福听力冲洗要注重效率

首先,托福听力注意原文的深入理解。在最后的托福听力备考冲刺阶段,建议大家不必再拿出很多新题进行练习了,完全可以回归到之前的练习内容中,找出之前一些没有完全理解或是答题准备率比较低的文章,重新再听并且详细比对原文,对其中的发音、语句、关键词都进行详细的理解,再以同样的语速进行跟读。大家在排除了听力障碍之后,重新再回归到自己的错题中,分析错误的原因,加以重新改正。

其次,听力抗干扰内容。在托福听力的进行中,托福听力备考中找关键词和关键句是一项很重要的部分。在文中如果能准确找到这些内容,也就是精准的把握住了文章的主干脉络。正因如此,在听力材料中,有时会出现一些插入语和连接词,为关键词的定位带来一定的影响。所以,在冲刺阶段,我们还需重点练习听力文章主旨的把握,确保自己的思路是根据文章的内容而发展,不会离题、偏题。

最后,心态的稳定把握。想要在考试时候,有从容镇定的心态,要做的无非就是两件事:充分备考和好好休息。另外,小编也建议大家,为了适应考试当天的环境,在最后的冲刺阶段,备考学生不妨去进行一下上机的模拟测试,让考试当天心情更加笃定,从容应考。

托福听力备考越早进行越好,如果是在时间上来不及了大家在进行托福听力练习时也不要盲目进行,希望这篇介绍对于大家的托福听力有所帮助。

托福听力练习:聪明的蚂蚁备份导航系统

Make a left at the big oak tree about a mile down the road. That kind of
direction is common in landscapes filled with visual cues. But the Sahara desert
is a much tougher place to navigate. Even any footprints you leave get erased as
winds massage the sand. Nevertheless, ants in the desert go on searches for
food—and once they find it they carry their prize directly back to the nest.

In the late 1980's, researchers discovered that the ants can achieve this
impressive feat using a process called path integration. To gauge the direction
home, they keep track of the sun's motion across the sky—just like sailors used
to do. To calculate the distance, they count their steps.

"It's a very hostile environment. They're foraging at the hottest times of
the day and it's a desert, so surface temperatures reach 60 to 70 degrees
Celsius."

Neurobiologist Matthias Wittlinger from Germany's Ulm University, on the
podcast of the journal Science, which published this work.

"And they need to be really quick in finding food, and they really need to
be very quick in getting the food back to the nest...they need to be really
fast, and they're travelling at speeds of 100 body lengths per second."

Wittlinger noticed that sometimes desert ants carry each other.

"And here we had this unique opportunity to test traveling ants that are
not walking."

If they're not walking, then they can't count their steps. So would these
ants be able to find their way home?、

Bees and wasps can't count their steps, because they fly. Instead, to
estimate distance they rely on what's called optic flow, which tracks how much
visual information flows past them while they travel. So, do carried ants also
use optic flow?

To find out, the researchers waited for an ant to emerge from its nest
carrying another. After the pair walked for ten meters, the researchers
separated them. And impressively, the carried ant marched straight on back to
the nest—but not if their vision was blocked.

"So if they were blindfolded while being carried, they have no chance of
gaining any distance information."

Which proves that they need eyesight—and therefore optic flow—to do it.

These critters live in one of the harshest environments on the planet, so
it makes sense that evolution endowed them with the tools for path integration
and optic flow.

"In the case of the desert ant, it's really important that they're getting
navigation right...if one system fails, you still have a backup system."

Because if you're going to live in the desert you have to be very clever in
finding ways to not die in the desert.

沿着这条路走,在大约一英里处的大橡树那里左拐。这种导航方向在有视觉线索的地形非常常见。但是撒哈拉沙漠是一个很难导航的地方。即使你留下脚印也会被风沙覆盖。然而,在沙漠中的蚂蚁却能够继续寻找食物,一旦它们发现食物,它们可以直接把食物搬回巢穴中。

上世纪80年代后期,研究人员发现蚂蚁可以实现这一了不起的壮举,这被称为路径整合。蚂蚁跟踪太阳在天空中的运动情况来判断回家的方向,就像过去水手们做的一样。它们通过计算步数来计算距离。

“这是一个非常恶劣的环境。它们在一天最热的时间觅食,沙漠的表面温度高达60到70摄氏度。”

德国乌尔姆大学的神经生物学家马蒂亚斯·威特林格在本周《科学》期刊的播客上发表了这项研究成果。

“它们要快速找到食物,还要快速把食物带回巢穴……它们的动作要非常快,基本上它们每秒的速度要达到身长的100倍。”

威特林格指出,有时沙漠蚂蚁会互相背着前进。

“我们有这个独特的机会来测试那些没有走路的觅食蚂蚁。”

如果它们不走路,那它们就不能计算步数。那这些蚂蚁能找到回家的路吗?

蜜蜂和黄蜂不能数步数,因为它们靠飞行移动。所以,它们依靠光流来计算距离,它们会根据飞行过程中的视觉信息流来估算距离。那被抬着的蚂蚁也用光流来计算距离吗?

为了弄清楚这点,研究人员等待一只蚂蚁背着另一只蚂蚁从它的巢里出现。在它们走了十米以后,研究人员把它们分开了。令人印象深刻地是,如果视野受阻,那被背着的蚂蚁会径直返回巢穴中。

“如果它们在被背着时眼睛被蒙住,那它们就没有机会获得任何有关距离的信息。”

这证明它们需要视力,也就是要它们需要光流。

这些生物生活在地球最恶劣的环境中,所以进化赋予它们路径整合和光流的能力是有道理的。

“在沙漠蚂蚁的例子中,获得导航能力是非常重要的……如果一个系统失败,它们还有一个备份系统。”

因为如果要在沙漠中生活,你必须要非常聪明,这样才能找到路而避免死在沙漠中。

重点讲解:

1. keep track of 跟上…的进展;掌握…的最新消息;

例句:I keep track of my expenses in a notebook.

我把我的支出记在一个笔记本上。

2. rely on 依赖;依靠;

例句:In default of expert's help, you'll have to rely on yourselves.

没有专家的帮助,你们只好依靠自己了。

3. find out (尤指特意通过努力)发现,找出,查明;

例句:He was asked to find out how the land lies.

有人要他探知事情的真相。

4. make sense 可以理解;讲得通;

例句:Delaying their retirement by raising the pensionable age might make
sense.

通过推迟拿养老金的年龄而让他们迟点退休,可能还有道理。

5. endow with 赋予;使天生拥有;

例句:You are endowed with wealth, good health and a lively intellect.

你生来就拥有财富、健康和活跃的思维。

2020托福听力练习:人类和鸟类合作共享蜂巢

This is a story about the birds and the bees. When the Yao people of
Mozambique want to find beehives full of honey they make this noise [brrrr-hm].
That sound attracts the attention of what are appropriately called honeyguide
birds.

"If you ask Yao honey-hunters why they go brrrr-hm when they're looking for
a honeyguide, they'll tell you, well, it's the best way to attract a honeyguide
and to maintain its attention while you're following it to a bees' nest."

Claire Spottiswoode, of the University of Cambridge in England and the
University of Cape Town in South Africa.

The Yao have long known that they could attract honeyguides vocally, as
part of a rare example of a mutualistic relationship between people and wild
animals. The humans get honey and the birds then get what they want—the
previously unattainable wax of the beehive, which they consider a delicacy.
Spottiswoode's study provides evidence that the humans are actually
communicating with the birds.

"We wanted to specifically test whether honeyguides responded to the exact
information content of the brrrr-hm call, which signals, if you wish, 'I'm
looking for bees' nests,' so we wanted to distinguish that from the alternative
that the call simply alerts honeyguides to the presence of humans."

Which the research team did—birds were much more likely to respond to
brrrr-hm than to other sounds. The study is in the journal Science.

Honeyguides may help people, but to other birds they can be monsters.

"Honeyguides are the real Jekyll and Hyde of the bird world...like cowbirds
or cuckoos, honeyguides are brood parasites—they lay their eggs in other birds'
nests and exploit the care of other species to raise their young. And their
chicks hatch with these very sharp hooks at the tips of their beak, which they
use to stab the host young to death as soon as they hatch."

You can watch some of this horror-movie-worthy footage that Spottiswoode
captured several years ago by googling the phrase "honeyguide murder."

As Africa becomes more urbanized, fewer people are engaging the birds to
help them find honey. And the relationship between honeyguides and honey-hunters
may be fraying.

"A young honeyguide hatches in the nest of another species knowing how to
be a honeyguide. Because it doesn't have the opportunity to learn from its own
parents. But then if that's not reinforced by experience, it's lost."

In the not-too-distant future then, honeyguides may still know where the
beehives are—but they'll be keeping that information to themselves.

这是一个有关鸟类和蜜蜂的故事。当莫桑比克的尧族人民想要找到装满蜂蜜的蜂巢时,他们就会发出这样的声音。这种声音可以吸引被称作响蜜鴷的鸟类。

“如果你问尧族猎蜜人为什么在寻找响蜜鴷时发出这种声音,他们会告诉你,这是吸引响蜜鴷的最好方法,而且可以在找到蜂巢之前留住响蜜鴷的注意力。”

克莱尔·斯波蒂斯伍德来自英国剑桥大学和南非开普敦大学。

尧族人早就知道能用声音来吸引响蜜鴷,这是人类和野生动物之间互惠关系的罕见例子。人类获得蜂蜜,而响蜜鴷也会得到它们想要的——之前无法获得的蜂窝中的腊,这种鸟类将其视为珍宝。斯波蒂斯伍德的研究为人类和这种鸟类之间的交流提供了证据。

“具体来说,我们想测试的是响蜜鴷是否会对人类发出声音中含有的特定信息做出回应,这种信息传递的信号是‘我在找蜂巢',我们想将这种声音和单纯警示人类存在的声音区分开来。”

研究团队发现,与其他的声音相比,鸟类对第一种声音的回应较多。该研究结果发表在《科学》杂志上。

响蜜鴷可能对人类有帮助,但是对于其他鸟类来说,响蜜鴷则如猛兽一般。

响蜜鴷是鸟类中双重性格的代表,如燕八哥或杜鹃一样,响蜜鴷是巢内寄生体——它们在其他鸟类的鸟巢中产蛋,然后利用其他物种抚育自己的孩子。同时响蜜鴷幼崽的喙部尖端呈钩状,一旦寄主的幼鸟孵化,这些响蜜鴷的幼崽就会用尖尖的嘴将其啄死。

斯波蒂斯伍德数年前捕捉到了这样的恐怖镜头,大家可以通过网络检索“响蜜鴷谋杀”进行观看。

由于非洲城市化的程度越来越高,依赖响蜜鴷来寻找蜂蜜的人越来越少。因此,响蜜鴷和猎蜜人之间的关系可能会受到损害。

“在其他鸟巢中孵化的响蜜鴷幼鸟知道如何寻找蜂蜜。可是它们没有从父母那里学习这种本领的机会。如果这种技能没有经验的强化,也会失传。”

在不远的将来,响蜜鴷可能仍然知道哪里有蜂巢——但是它们会保守秘密。

重点讲解:

1. respond to 回复;回答;回应;

例句:He responded to my suggestion with a nod.

他点头回应我的建议。

2. distinguish from 区分;辨别;分清;

例句:It's important to distinguish fact from fiction.

把现实与虚构区分开来是很重要的。

3. to death (用于动词后)以致死亡;

例句:He was beaten to death by thugs.

他被..殴打致死。

4. as soon as 一…就…;

例句:He will be set free as soon as the fine is paid.

只要交了罚款,他就会被释放。

5. keep sth. to oneself 把…秘而不宣;不将…说出去;

例句:I keep things to myself because I don't want shoulder anybody else with
my problems.

我把事情藏在心底只是因为不想拿自己的问题去麻烦别人。


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