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托福听力出题带你该如何辨别呢

昆居客 / 学习方法 /

托福听力中有很多考生比较容易出现的问题,比如慢热,俗称“没感觉”,走神,下面小编就和大家分享托福听力出题带你该如何辨别呢,希望能够帮助到大家,来欣赏一下吧。

托福听力出题你该如何辨别呢?

首先是做托福笔记的方法:我个人的习惯差不多每个段子都能写一面纸。这里的确有很多内容是无用的,但如果遇到口音重、句子结构复杂的文章,一边记一边听有困难,我就会放弃大量笔记,只写关键词。

在完全不知道题目在问什么的时候,根据一个词儿定位,再回忆原文,可能会有一定的帮助。至于Lecture,一般我会用线条把草稿纸分割成“田”或
“用”字的样式,写下关键词以后,如果教授说:我讲的这个东西啊,有三个类别/三个发展阶段/三个解决方式,就在“用”字纸张上写,左边每一格写关键分类
词,右边对应格儿写特点和评价。

有例子、学生提问、奇怪语气的地方打上标记。这种情况下一般能网罗一半以上的题目。
顺便说一句,我觉得这个笔记方法对于口语来说也是适用的,我口语不算高只有26,但后四题都是good,不得不说笔记功劳大大的。

记笔记的同时要判断出题点。很多人都说出题点可以预见,我个人也觉得托福听力至少有50%的题目在听的时候就能判断了,这部分的分数要拿稳。

第一是主题题。这啥也不用说了,必考,这样一来,6道题搞定了。

第二是奇怪语气。这个也很好判断,我个人觉得有:“结巴和长停顿”,“打断别人说话”、“夸张的发音和语气的”等。

第三是我自己的感觉。如果是总分-列举型的文章,最后一个列举考到可能性非常大。所以如果前两个都没听明白,别放弃,因为最后可能出题的是最后一个。

即使考不到最后一个,考了很难的“特点匹配”的好几分的题目,你至少可以用最后一个分类的特点来排除。所以最后一个一定要认真听。

2020托福听力练习:地衣含有三种以上成分

Lichens. They're probably the most common example of two organisms living
in a symbiotic relationship. There's a fungus and a photosynthesizing partner,
like algae. It's a bond that was born, as they say, when "Alice Algae," took a
"lichen" to "Freddie Fungus."

But that simple description covered up a larger mystery: how could two
different lichen species combine the same building blocks—same fungus, same
algae—"and yet they look very different, have very different chemistry, and some
of them even have distinctly different ecology."

Toby Spribille, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Montana, and
the University of Graz in Austria.

He and his colleagues studied two lichen species that fit that bill. Same
underlying parts, different color and chemistry. They ground the lichens up, and
then analyzed their RNA. What they expected to find was two genomes: one fungus,
one alga. "And what we found is that, at the end of a lot of analysis, we had
was three genomes, not two.And this was really surprising."

The third genome was from a type of yeast. And the more yeast was present,
the more yellowish—and more toxic—the lichen was. The study appears in the
journal Science.

But how could scientists spend so many years studying these lichens—and
still miss this crucial third species? Spribille says it could have been the
type of genetic sequencing. Previous studies relied on DNA barcodes, which only
sample some of the genome, to identify the underlying fungus and alga. Sort of
like identifying the occupants of a completely dark room by shouting out a few
names and seeing who answers.

What Spribille did, instead, was just turn all the lights on, with whole
genome sequencing, revealing the identity of all occupants, and in doing so, "we
eliminated anything that required going in and calling out somebody's name so to
speak."

As for whether some lichens might have four, five species? "I certainly
wouldn't rule it out at this point." Because this study indicates lichens are
truly more than the sum of their parts. Including, of course, the parts we still
don't know about.

地衣可能是两种生物以共生关系存在的最常见例子。地衣由1种真菌和1种光合生物(如藻类)组成。这种联系是固有的,就像他们说的,“爱丽丝藻类”和“弗雷迪真菌”共生形成地衣。

但是这种简单的描述掩盖了一个更深奥的秘密:两种不同的地衣物种如何结合同样的成分——即同样的真菌和同样的藻类,“而且,它们看上去非常不同,它们的化学成分也不同,有些地衣甚至有着明显不同的生态。””

托比·斯普利比尔是蒙大拿大学和奥地利格拉茨大学的进化生物学家。

他和同事对符合上述条件的两种地衣进行了研究。这两种地衣的基本成分相同,但颜色和化学成分不同。他们将地衣磨碎,然后分析了它们的核糖核酸。他们原以为会发现两个基因组:一个是真菌,另一个是藻类。“但最后,在进行大量分析以后,我们发现的是三个基因组,而不是两个。这真是太让人惊讶了。”

第三个基因组来自于一种酵母。酵母的含量越多,地衣颜色越黄,毒性也越强。这项研究发表在《科学》杂志上。

但是,科学家们怎么会在研究地衣多年后仍未发现这至关重要的第三物种?斯普利比尔表示,可能是由于基因测序的方法不一样。此前的研究依赖于DNA条形码,只是对这一基因组中的一部分进行抽样调查,用以确认潜在的真菌和藻类。这就好像在一间完全黑暗的房间里,通过喊出几个名字,看看谁作出回答,来确定居住者身份。

而斯普利比尔的做法是,打开房间内所有的灯,通过全基因组测序来揭示所有居住者的身份,并且通过这种方法,“可以说,我们不需要进入房间喊出某人的名字。”

至于是否有地衣含有第四或第五种成分?“现在我不能完全排除这一可能性。”因为这项研究表明,地衣不仅仅是各部分的单纯相加。还包括我们目前尚不知道的成分。

重点讲解:

1. cover up 隐藏,遮掩(事实);

例句:He suspects there's a conspiracy to cover up the crime.

他怀疑有人密谋掩盖犯罪事实。

2. grind up 磨碎;碾碎;将…磨成粉;

例句:We grind up the wheat to make flour.

我们把小麦磨成面粉。

3. rely on 依赖;依靠;

例句:We must rely on ourselves, no other option.

我们必须依靠自己,没有其他选择.

4. shout out 大声说出;大声喊出;

例句:When I call your name, shout out so that we know you're here.

当我叫到你的名字时请大声响应, 以便大家知道你来了。

5. turn on 打开(设备);接通(…的供应);

例句:I want to turn on the television.

我想开电视。

6. so to speak 可以说;可谓;

例句:But for young people it presents an opportunity to follow the sun, so to
speak.

但对年轻人来说,却可以说是追寻生活乐趣的良机。

7. rule out 排除;不予考虑;

例句:I think we can rule out the possibility of objection to us.

我认为我们可以排除有人反对我们的可能性。

2020托福听力练习:选民不会背竞选演讲所影响

Donald Trump hasn't been running the most traditional campaign. And it's
not just the unfiltered tweets. "He's neglecting campaigning full stop." Thomas
Wood, an assistant professor of political science at Ohio State. "He's had about
half as many public events as his opponent."

Wood's own campaign experience was with the Romney/Ryan ticket back in
2012. Every night, the campaign surveyed thousands of voters... 64,000 over
all... asking them how they felt about the politicians, after a local visit.
That is, if the voters actually knew about the visit.

"Instead of seeing candidate X visiting somewhere in Pensacola they're now
seeing candidate X visit somewhere in their local market. And it's not really
filtering through to that many folks that the visit was there—you know one event
sort of looks like the other. They all sort of blend into each other. It's hard
to make it clear to the person who's just watching the evening news that this
was a visit in your local marketplace."

In other words, visits didn't even register for most locals or those in
adjacent markets. And the voters' opinions of the candidates went up just a
measly couple percent after local visits—before fading back to baseline a few
days later. So despite the huge investment of time and money, the local campaign
stops were pretty worthless—at least from a numbers standpoint. The findings are
in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

As for this election season—any advice for the noncampaigning candidate? "I
would provide advice that has nothing to do with his frequency of visits. I'd be
providing advice as to how one comports oneself with the national press, try to
earn some goodwill. I guess just being polite. I would say that Trump's sort of
lethargic process of campaigning is probably the least of his worries." Better,
he says, to just spend more time fundraising. To throw more cash at things that
really work: like get-out-the-vote campaigns, and ads. Then again…Twitter's
free.

唐纳德·特朗普没有用最传统的竞选方法组织竞选活动。这并不是仅指他未经过滤的推文。“他完全忽视了这是总统竞选演讲。”托马斯·伍德是俄亥俄州立大学政治学的助理教授。“特朗普的公共活动只有其对手的一半。”

伍德曾在2012年跟随罗姆尼和瑞安的竞选团队进行竞选活动。当时,竞选团队每天晚上都要调查数千名选民,调查人数可能高达6.4万人,在政治家走访当地后询问选民对他们的看法。前提是选民知道当地的竞选活动。

“某位候选人没有前往彭萨科拉的某个地方,而是去到当地的市场。对许多人来说,去哪里访问都一样,因为竞选活动看起来差不多。这些活动会互相融合。对正在看晚间新闻的人来说,很难弄清楚新闻里的人正在当地市场进行访问。”

换言之,对大多数当地人或是临近市场的大多数居民来说,这些访问并没有记录。在当地访问结束后,选民对候选人的意见只会带来可怜的几个百分点的上涨,而几天后支持率又会退回到基准线。所以,尽管投入了大量的资金和时间,地方竞选活动其实并没有什么价值——至少从数据来看可以这么说。该研究结果发表在《美国政治和社会科学学院年报》上。

就今年的竞选季来说,对没有进行竞选活动的候选人有什么建议?“我提供的建议可能与他们的竞选频率没有任何关系。我的建议是:候选人若想让自己的形象同国家新闻报道的相一致,那就努力去获得信誉。我认为候选人要有礼貌。我想说,特朗普有些昏沉的竞选过程可能是他最不担心的。”他说,最好将更多时间花费在筹集资金上。将钱用到真正有用的地方:比如动员投票活动、广告等。当然还有免费的推特。

重点讲解:

1. instead of 代替…;而不是…;

例句:He should have shot instead of passing.

他本该射门,不该传球。

2. blend into 融入;与…融为一体;与…协调;

例句:I tried to blend into the crowd, but I was obviously not dressed for the
occasion.

我试图融入人群中,但很明显我的穿着不适合这种场合。

3. in other words 换言之;换句话说;也就是说;

例句:In other words, the quality of the candidates was the decisive
factor.

换言之,人才是最后的决定因素。

4. as for 至于…;

例句:As for his moral character, he is also prais


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